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Friday, 6 June 2014

LEVELS OF BIOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

20:51 - 10 comments

Biological Organization:

Biological association, or the chain of life, is the pecking order of complex biological structures and frameworks that characterize life by means of a reductionist method. The traditional order, as point by point underneath, stretches out from atoms or molecules (or lower) to biospheres.

Atomic or Subatomic Level:


Each and every living and nonliving matter is structured by simple units called atoms and sub atomic particles such as electrons, protons & neutrons. 


Molecular level:

Life forms i.e. organisms; generally don't occur in isolated structures. The atoms consolidate with one another by means of ionic or covalent bonding to deliver compounds. Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur are the most general atoms found in biological or organic molecules. The distinctive sorts of bonding license organic atoms to be structured in incredible variety and intricacy. These may be micro particles with low atomic weight like CO2, H2O and so forth or macromolecules with high sub-atomic weights e.g. starch, proteins and so forth.
Biological world has two sorts of particles: Organic and inorganic.

Organic molecules are those molecules which contain both carbon and hydrogen while inorganic molecules exclude carbon and hydrogen together in a particle. An organism is generally structured by huge number of micro and macro particles of many distinctive sorts. Some most paramount and bounteous natural atoms in living beings are glucose, amino acids, unsaturated fats, glycerol, nucleotides, etc.

Organelles and Cells:

Diverse and colossal number of macromolecules orchestrates themselves in a specific manner to structure cells and their organelles. In case of microorganisms, and most protists, the whole life form comprises of a solitary cell. In most parasites, plants and creatures, the organism may comprise of up to trillions of cells. Various sub-cell structures like mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi-body, ribosomes and so on have been observed and studied on for their structure and functionality. It has ended up clear that functionality of these cells is accomplished by these particular structures practically comparable to the organs of the body. These structures are called organelles. The division of work inside the cell is carried out by these organelles. The prokaryotes have just a set number and kind of organelles in their cytoplasm. Eukaryotes are rich in number and sorts of membranous organelles. A cell membrane is, however, present in all cells whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

Tissue level:

In multicellular organisms, clusters of similar cells are composed into loose sheets or groups performing comparable functions; these groups are called tissues. Each one tissue has a specific function in the life of the living being e.g. glandular tissue, muscle tissue, xylem tissue, phloem tissue, etc. They are specific for secretion, contraction, conducting water and for translocation of proteins, sugars respectively.

Organ and System:


Different tissues having related functionalities gather together in a structure to perform its function with incredible effectiveness. Such structures are called organs and they are particular to perform specific functions. For instance, stomach which is an organ has a function of food processing (digestion), has a secretory epithelium which secretes the gastric juice and a muscular tissue (smooth) for contracting the walls of the stomach and blending the food with the enzymes altogether and moving the sustenance to the posterior end. The development of organs additionally has a specific quality in light of the fact that this prompts an effective achievement of their functions both qualitatively and quantitatively. In animals, organ development is much more complex and characterized. The organ level of organization is considerably less definite in plants than it is in animals. At the most we might recognize roots, stems; leaves and regenerative structures. Obvious functions, the recognizing functions, can be appointed to each of these structures. Roots anchor the plant into soil firmly, stockpiling of sustenance and acquiring water and minerals. The shoot upholds the whole plant while the leaves are essential organs for food making. Flowers or other reproductive structures are engaged in delivering the cutting edge (reproduction). 

Individual:

Different organs in plants and animals are assembled together to structure a distinctive individual which has characters not quite the same from other members of the same specie.

Population:
A populace is a grouping of living organisms of the same species living in the same area in the same time. Samples are the figure of rats in a field of rice, the number of pupils in your science class, or human populace in a city.


Populace is a more elevated level of natural association than organisms in light of the fact that here a group of living beings of the same species is included. This level of association has its own features which came into being by living of a group of organisms of the same species. Some of these characteristics are gene frequency, gene flow, age, populace density, etc. 

Community:  

Populaces of different species (plants and animals) living in the same territory shape a group or community. Communities are dynamic accumulations of living beings; in which one populace may increment and others may shrink because of variance in abiotic elements. A few communities are complex while different communities may be simple and straightforward. In a straightforward community any change can have extreme and ongoing impacts. The record makes it clear that an organism can be observed and studied at different levels of association. It can be learned at subatomic, nuclear, atomic, macromolecular, organelle, cell, tissue, organ level. We can likewise take a look at community as a single person, as a piece of a group that incorporates different populaces and a piece of community of an ecosystem which incorporates abiotic variables. The organisms can communicate by predation, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism.
 
 


 

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